For more than two decades, systemic platinum-based chemotherapy has been the standard first-line treatment for patients with inoperable or advanced metastatic bladder cancer. Objective response rates are as high as 60%, and complete responses (CRs) occur in 10% to 20% of patients. The duration of response, however, is short. With a median overall survival of ~15 months and a 5-year survival rate of ≤15%, relapsed urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) represents a substantial unmet medical need. UBC appears to be particularly susceptible to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Studies of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors describe acceptable toxicity profiles, with most immune-related adverse events (irAEs) being low grade and more tolerable than platinum-based chemotherapy. Biomarkers may help predict which patients will get the most benefit from immunotherapy, but may involve a series of factors beyond PD-L1. Current controversies include how best to sequence ICIs with other therapies, how best to interpret tumor markers in guiding therapy, which ICI to use in a given patient, and how long immunotherapy should be continued.

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Ashish Kamat, MD, MBBS, FACS

Professor, Department of Urology Wayne B. Duddlesten Professor of Cancer Research Associate Cancer Center Director, RFHNH, Mumbai University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX
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Robert Dreicer, MD, MS, MACP, FASCO

Associate Director for Clinical Research Deputy Director, University of Virginia Cancer Center Section Head, Medical Oncology Co-Director, Paul Mellon Urologic Cancer Institute Professor of Medicine and Urology University of Virginia School of Medicine Charlottesville, VA
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Arjun Balar, MD

Director, Genitourinary Medical Oncology Program Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center NYU Langone Health New York, NY
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In support of improving patient care, Creative Educational Concepts is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

Medicine (ACCME)
CEC designates this live educational activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Upon completion of a CE Request Form, statements of credit for physicians will be issued within 30 business days.


This activity is supported through an independent educational grant from AstraZeneca.